Shalakya Tantra is the subject consisting three subdivisions- 1.Netra roga vigyan (Ophthalmology), 2. Karna-Nasa- Kanth-Shiro roga vigyan (ENT), 3. Mukh & Dant roga (Detistry). These specialties having some different methods of treatment known as Kriyakalp, like local application of medicine at the site of disease along with systemic administration as well as different type of surgeries including modern techniques.
One out of the eight branches of Ayurveda, Shalakya Tantra deals with the etiology, diagnosis, prognosis, prevention and treatment of diseases that are located above the neck region such as the head, ear, nose, eye and throat. It is responsible for all types of problems in and around the head. The name of the branch is so called because of its excessive use of ‘Shalaka’, which means probe. In South India, the branch is also known by the name – Urdhwangchikitsa. The word can be broken into two parts – Urdhwang which means the body parts above the shoulder and Chikitsa which signifies treatment. In Shalakya Tantra, there are different types of probe that are included. Some of them are probe of the eye (netra shalaka), probe of the ear (karna shalaka), probe of the nose (nasa shalaka), of the throat (mukh shalaka) and of the lips (oshta shalaka).